Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education
The Government of Bangladesh places great importance on education and in this regard the Government has been trying to transform its huge population into human resource. Education for All (EFA) is the constitutional responsibility of the government. The constitution affirms equal rights in education for all. Considering this, the government has emphasised on providing education to the backward population and its female citizens. The government is providing free education upto HSC (Class- 12) for the female along with stipend. It is expected that this will contribute to enhancing the enrollment rate of the female students, decreasing the rate of dropouts and enriching the country with an educated mass.
The present education system of Bangladesh may be broadly divided into three major stages, viz. primary, secondary and higher education. Primary education is imparted basically by primary level institutions. Secondary education is imparted by junior secondary and higher secondary level institutions. Higher education is imparted by degree pass (3 years), degree honors (4 years), masters (1 & 2 years) and other higher level institutions of equivalent section of other related institutions.
The education system of Bangladesh is being managed and administered by two Ministries in association with the attached Departments and Directorates as well as a number of autonomous bodies. The two streams of education are: Primary education (Grade I-V) and Secondary and Higher Education (Grade VI and above). Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME) under a Secretary manages the primary education sector while the other stream i.e. from secondary to higher educationis managed by Ministry of Education (MOE) headed by Secretary of its own. At the top a Minister and a State Minister is responsible for controlling the overall activities of both the Ministries. The post-primary stream of education is further classified into four types in terms of curriculum: general education, madrashah education, technical-vocational education and professional education.
History of Secondary and Higher Education in Bangladesh: From ancient times to the middle ages indigenous education was in vogue in this sub-continent. Primary education was home-centered followed by Madrasha and "Toll" (Higher education) education. Parsi, Sanskrit and pali languages were used as the medium of education. Education was based on practical needs along with religious education. With the coming of the British rule, the current education system based on practical needs developed.
During the British rule, The East India Company through its missionaries began to influence the education system and The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) was formed. Later in 1824, the General Committee of Public Instruction (GCPI) was established with the objective to initiate a developed and essential education incorporating moral values for the Indians. In 1854, the Woods Education Dispatch proposed for the establishment of a Directorate of Public Instruction (DPI) at each province. Following the necessity of amending the Indian University in 1904, the Indian University Commission was formed. This commission proposed a 03(three) year Bachelor degree course. It also put an end to the planning of establishing new universities and brought about fundamental changes by abolishing 2nd graded colleges.
The Direct Role of the British Government in the Education System: The 1st Indian Education Commission that is the Hunter Commission proposed the introduction of "A" Course (Literature) and "B" Course (Technical Education). It also proposed motivating higher education through private initiative and bring the government colleges under divisional control.
In 1917 the Sadler Commission proposed the first two years of university education to be incorporated within colleges as Higher Secondary Education. The Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board was entrusted with the responsibility of conducting examinations. Under the concept of Calcutta University, the Aligarh University, the Dhaka University and the Lucknow University were established in 1920 and 1921 consecutively. Through the Sergent Plan in 1944, the secondary education for children aged between 11-17 years was proposed. This followed the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC).
Education System during Pakistan Rule: In 1947 the Akram Khan Committee and in 1957 the Ataur Rahman Khan Commission were established to deal with the education system. East Pakistan Secondary Education Board took charge of the affiliation and examination of secondary level institutions. This step was followed by the creation of a School Textbook Board in 1954. Later one Board was split into 6 on the principle of one Board for each administrative division of the country. These 6 Boards shared between them the responsibilities of granting recognition to the schools, supply of textbooks, inspection and above all holding two public examinations, one at the end of the year of schooling (Secondary) and the other at the end of the twelfth year (Higher Secondary). Breaking the traditional one stream secondary education in 1959, separate streams were introduced after Class-8 namely Arts, Science and Commerce.
History of Education System in Bangladesh:
After the independence of Bangladesh many changes and development took place at the secondary level of education system. The Government took the responsibility of secondary and higher secondary education by nationalising a good number of schools and colleges throughout the country. In 1983 the government formed a cadre named BCS (General Education) and the government college teachers came under the cadre service. In 1981 the office of the Director of Public Instruction (DPI) was upgraded as the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE).
To promote higher education in Bangladesh, The National University was established in 1992 and all colleges offering Bachelors and Masters degree came under it. The National University became an affiliating university conducting examinations at the different level of higher education.
The government has been trying to boost up female education by introducing stipend program and providing other facilities like free studentship. Consecutively, the government introduced a pay scale for the teachers of non-government schools and colleges and providing 100% salary to them from the government fund. The government also established an authority to provide retirement and other benefits to the teachers and employees of the non-government schools, colleges and madrashas.
The Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE): Under the overall supervision and guidance of the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Secondary and Higher education system of Bangladesh is being managed and administered by the Directorate of Secondary & Higher Education (DSHE).The Directorate is headed by a Director General who is responsible for administration, management and control of secondary and higher education including madrashas (institutions imparting religious education) and other special types of education. The Director General is assisted by 4 Directors who performs their duties through Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors and Research Officers at its head office and also by field level offices located at divisional, district and upazilla level. The Directorate controls approximately 29569 secondary, higher secondary & tertiary level institutions consisting of 412526 teachers and 13840164 students. DSHE has a total of 67 Class one, 11 Class two officials, 166 class three and 50 class four staff at its head office. It has 234 officers and staff at the 9 zonal offices and 684 officers and staff at 64 District Education Offices in addition to 2372 officers and staffs at the upazilla level.